French: Carouge à calotte rousse German: Braunkopfstärling Spanish: Varillero congo
Subspecies and Distribution
C. r. frontalis
(Vieillot, 1819) – coast of French Guiana, and E Brazil (Amapá, including Marajó I, E to Rio Grande do Norte, then S to Goiás, Minas Gerais and São Paulo).
C. r. ruficapillus
(Vieillot, 1819) – E Bolivia (Santa Cruz) and S Brazil (Mato Grosso do Sul E to São Paulo and Rio Grande do Sul) S to NE Argentina (NE La Pampa and Buenos Aires) and Uruguay.
Males average 18·5 cm, 41·3 g; female average 17·1 cm, 32·2 g. Male nominate race has most of crown, throat and uppermost breast deep dark... read more
Males have two song types, sometimes produced in alternate sequences: one type starts with clicks,... read more
Marshes (permanent or temporary), rice fields, wet grasslands and agricultural fields; invades... read more
Food and feeding
Seeds, insects and spiders (Araneae). Feeds heavily on cultivated rice seeds (12–62% of stomach contents); in natural conditions... read more
Season Nov–Mar in C & SE Brazil (both races) and Apr–May in NE (frontalis). Mating system sequential or harem... read more
Little reliable or detailed information. Movements seem to occur mostly in response to droughts and... read more
Status and conservation
Not globally threatened. Common to locally abundant. Expanding its range, notably in C Brazil. Much attracted to rice fields, and regarded as a major agricultural pest in... read more
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