Nominate race suggested as being specifically distinct from others on basis of a unique trilling song#R, but limited available recorded evidence (Java and Vietnam only) indicates that populations have basically similar single-note and double-note songs, but with no very fast version so far documented for Vietnam; thus, taxonomic significance of vocal difference difficult to assess at present#R, while other characters unique to nominate are apparently few and none major; more research needed. Proposed race laotianus (Laos) inseparable from intermedius; recent review suggests that indochinensis and yaoshanensis might also be included in intermedius (as influence of sample size, and variation with age and season, apparently not taken into account in previous taxonomic assessments). Five subspecies provisionally recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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