Has been considered closely related to T. bengalensis; may be close to T. elegans and T. sandvicensis. May have hybridized with T. bergii. Formerly known as T. zimmermanni. Monotypic.
Poorly known. Only recent breeding records at three sites on E China coast, in Jiushan Is and Zhoushan Wuzhishan Is (Zhejiang) and Matsu Is (off Fujian)#R#R; formerly bred off Shandong, but probably extirpated#R. Non-breeding records in SE China, Thailand, Sarawak, Philippines and N & C Moluccas (Halmahera, Seram).
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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