San Antonio, 5800 feet [c. 1770 m], Valle, Colombia.
Usually considered conspecific with A. tricolor (occasionally with A. leucopis), but differs from former in its notably duller crown (2); slightly more olive underparts (but variable; ns); slightly larger size, including bill (allow 1); longer song phrase duration (effect size from published data 2.2#R, score 2); higher number of notes per phrase (effect size from published data 1.07#R, score 1)#R; different habitat (forest at 300–2000 vs 1750–3050 m#R) (1). Available genetic data, from separate studies#R#R, are suggestive that present species and A. tricolor are not each other’s closest relatives, but because most hypotheses concerning the latter taxon’s relationships are weakly supported more data are needed. Monotypic.
W Andes of Colombia (S from Antioquia) and W Ecuador (from Esmeraldas to Pichincha and W Cotopaxi, and Azuay, El Oro and Loja#R).
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