Formerly treated as conspecific with X. guttatus and X. guttatoides, but recent molecular study (with enlarged dataset)#R supports an earlier proposal to recognize these as three distinct species differing in calls and body size; geographical patterns in songs, however, are more complex than previously realized. Two subspecies groups, differing markedly in plumage patterns: “susurrans group” in E of range (Trinidad, Tobago, Margarita I and adjacent Venezuelan mainland) and “nana group” in Central America, N Colombia and N & W Venezuela. Race nana often misspelt “nanus” but the word is a noun and spelling therefore invariable#R. Birds from NE Colombia and adjacent NW Venezuela, described as race demonstratus, are inseparable from nana. Eight subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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