J. F. Gmelin, 1788,
Closely related to P. frantzii; although not in full contact, these two have hybridized, and by some may be considered conspecific. Two recent molecular studies found present species to be sister to a clade consisting of P. sanguineus, P. erythropygius and P. frantzii#R#R. All belong to the P. torquatus group, which includes also P. aracari, P. castanotis and P. pluricinctus. Usually considered conspecific with P. sanguineus and P. erythropygius; birds in NW Colombia (NW Antioquia) with some black line on upper mandible are regarded as hybrids with sanguineus, but otherwise correspond to (and hence belong with) torquatus. Birds from SE Mexico (Chiapas), described as esperanzae, now lumped within nominate torquatus; those from NW Venezuela, named as race pectoralis, now included in nuchalis. Three subspecies currently recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
Only subscribers are able to see the bibliography. Login or Subscribe to get access to a lot of extra features!