Campo Geral of inner Brazil = campos on the Bahia–Minas Gerais border, east Brazil.
Race bitorquata has been treated by some authors as a dark variant of rufescens, but has also been suggested to represent a species apart based on plumage characters#R. Specimens from Amazonian portion of range not confidently attributed to either nominate or rufescens, both of which display clinal variation in body size, and these two subspecies might be better treated as synonymous; more research required#R. Three subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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