Family Kingfishers (Alcedinidae)

Least Concern

Collared Kingfisher (Todiramphus chloris)


French: Martin-chasseur à collier blanc German: Halsbandliest Spanish: Alción acollarado
Other common names: White-collared Kingfisher

Alcedo Chloris


, 1783,

Cape of Good Hope; error = Buru


Closely related to T. enigma and to T. cinnamominus (and taxa formerly included within it); former has been treated as conspecific, but lives alongside present species without hybridizing. Close also to T. sanctus and T. tutus, and some of the races listed below may be better placed in one of these, e.g. regina, vitiensis and eximius sometimes placed in former, whereas pealei, manuae, marinus and sacer may be better considered subspecies of latter. Of numerous races named, some (e.g. albicilla) are distinctive but several others doubtfully valid; further detailed research, re-evaluation and revision desirable. Fifty subspecies currently recognized.

Subspecies and Distribution
  • T. c. abyssinicus (Pelzeln, 1856) – S Red Sea coasts from NE Sudan to NW Somalia and in W Arabia.
  • T. c. kalbaensis (Cowles, 1980) – S Arabian coast of United Arab Emirates (Khawr Kalba) and NW & NE Oman (Shinas, Mahawt I).
  • T. c. vidali (Sharpe, 1892) – coastal W India from SW Maharashtra (Ratnagiri) S through Goa.
  • T. c. davisoni (Sharpe, 1892) – Coco Is (off S Myanmar) and nearby Andaman Is.
  • T. c. occipitalis Blyth, 1846 – Nicobar Is.
  • T. c. humii (Sharpe, 1892) – coasts from E India (West Bengal) E to Myanmar (including Mergui Archipelago) and S to Peninsular Malaysia, Tioman I and NE Sumatra.
  • T. c. armstrongi (Sharpe, 1892) – interior of Myanmar, Thailand and Indochina.
  • T. c. laubmannianus (Grote, 1933) – Sumatra (except NE coast) to Borneo, including Bangka, Belitung and other intervening islands.
  • T. c. chloropterus (Oberholser, 1919) – islands off W coast of Sumatra (Simeulue S to Sipora).
  • T. c. azelus (Oberholser, 1919) – Enggano I (off SW Sumatra).
  • T. c. palmeri (Oberholser, 1919) – Java, Bali, Bawean I and Kangean Is.
  • T. c. collaris (Scopoli, 1786) – Philippines, including Palawan and nearby islands.
  • T. c. chloris (Boddaert, 1783) – Talaud Is and Sangihe S through Sulawesi, Banggai Is and Sula Is to Lesser Sundas (E from Lombok) and E to W Papuan Is and NW New Guinea (coasts of Vogelkop and Onin Peninsulas).
  • T. c. sordidus (Gould, 1842) – Aru Is, coasts of SW to SE New Guinea, and N & NE Australia.
  • T. c. pilbara (Johnstone, 1983) – Pilbara region of Western Australia (from De Grey R SW to Exmouth Gulf).
  • T. c. colcloughi (Mathews, 1916) – coastal EC to SE Queensland (NE Australia).
  • T. c. teraokai (Nagamichi Kuroda, 1915) – Palau Is.
  • T. c. owstoni (Rothschild, 1904) – N Northern Marianas (Asuncion, Agrihan, Pagan, Almagan).
  • T. c. albicilla (Dumont de Sainte Croix, 1823) – S Northern Marianas (Saipan, Tinian).
  • T. c. orii (Taka-Tsukasa & Momiyama, 1931) – S Northern Marianas (Rota).
  • T. c. matthiae (Heinroth, 1902) – St Matthias Is (NC Bismarck Archipelago).
  • T. c. nusae (Heinroth, 1902) – New Hanover, New Ireland (except SW) and Feni Is (E Bismarcks).
  • T. c. novaehiberniae (E. J. O. Hartert, 1925) – Djaul I and S New Ireland.
  • T. c. bennetti (Ripley, 1947) – Nissan I (E of S New Ireland).
  • T. c. stresemanni (Laubmann, 1923) – islands between mainland New Guinea and New Britain (Long, Tolokiwa, Umboi, Sakar, and Witu Is).
  • T. c. tristrami (E. L. Layard, 1880) – New Britain and satellite islets.
  • T. c. colonus (E. J. O. Hartert, 1896) – Egum Atoll, Alcester I, Bonvouloir I and Louisiade Archipelago, off SE New Guinea.
  • T. c. alberti (Rothschild & E. J. O. Hartert, 1905) – W & C Solomons from Buka and Bougainville SE to Florida Is and Guadalcanal.
  • T. c. pavuvu (Mayr, 1935) – Pavuvu, in Russell Is (C Solomons).
  • T. c. mala (Mayr, 1935) – Malaita (E Solomons).
  • T. c. solomonis (E. P. Ramsay, 1882) – Makira (San Cristobal) and adjacent islands (E Solomons).
  • T. c. sororum (I. C. J. Galbraith & E. H. Galbraith, 1962) – Malaulalo and Malaupaina, off N Makira (E Solomons).
  • T. c. amoenus (Mayr, 1931) – Rennell and Bellona (SE Solomons).
  • T. c. vicina (Mayr, 1931) – Duff Is (NE Santa Cruz Is).
  • T. c. brachyurus (Mayr, 1931) – Reef or Swallow Is (NC Santa Cruz Is).
  • T. c. ornatus (Mayr, 1931) – Tinakula and Nendo (NW Santa Cruz Is).
  • T. c. utupuae (Mayr, 1931) – Utupua I (C Santa Cruz Is).
  • T. c. melanodera (Mayr, 1931) – Vanikoro I (S Santa Cruz Is).
  • T. c. torresianus (Mayr, 1931) – Hiu, Loh and Toga, in Torres Is (N Vanuatu).
  • T. c. santoensis (Mayr, 1931) – Banks Is S to Espiritu Santo and Malo (NC Vanuatu).
  • T. c. juliae (Heine, 1860) – Ambae and Maewo S to Efaté (EC Vanuatu).
  • T. c. erromangae (Mayr, 1938) – Erromango and Aneityum (S Vanuatu).
  • T. c. tannensis (Sharpe, 1892) – Tanna (S Vanuatu).
  • T. c. regina (Mayr, 1941) – Futuna Is (Wallis and Futuna Is).
  • T. c. pealei (Finsch & Hartlaub, 1867) – Tutuila (American Samoa).
  • T. c. manuae (Mayr, 1941) – Ofu, Olosega and Tau, in Manua Is (American Samoa).
  • T. c. vitiensis (Peale, 1848) – Vanua Levu, Taveuni, Viti Levu, Koro, Ovalau and Ngau (Fiji).
  • T. c. marinus (Mayr, 1941) – Lau Archipelago (E Fiji).
  • T. c. eximius (Mayr, 1941) – Kadavu and offshore islands (SW Fiji).
  • T. c. sacer (J. F. Gmelin, 1788) – C & S Tonga.
  • Several other, apparently undescribed populations occur in Santa Cruz Is (Tikopia, Anuta).

    Descriptive notes

    23–25 cm; male 51–90 g, female 54–100 g. Medium-sized kingfisher with variable plumage pattern. Male nominate race white supraloral spot, black mask... read more


    Common call a loud, ringing or harsh “kee-kee-kee-kee”, repeated 3–5 times, often... read more


    In W areas (Sudan to India) confined to mangroves on the coast and in tidal creeks; in SE Asia,... read more

    Food and feeding

    Coastal populations feed mainly on crustaceans such as shrimps and crabs having carapace width of 1–2 cm, also small fish, including... read more


    Lays in Apr–Jul in Ethiopia, in Jun in United Arab Emirates; in Mar–Aug but mainly Apr–May in NE India and Bangladesh, in... read more


    Resident and sedentary in most parts of range, with post-breeding dispersal reported in some areas... read more

    Status and conservation

    Not globally threatened (Least Concern). Very widespread species which is common to abundant in some localities. Colonized inland Malaysia in second half of 20th century.... read more

    Recommended citation

    Woodall, P.F. (2020). Collared Kingfisher (Todiramphus chloris). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from on 26 February 2020).