Possibly closest to T. curucui, T. rufus, T. elegans (with T. ambiguus), T. mexicanus and T. personatus; DNA studies suggest that T. personatus is sister to present species. Race puella sometimes regarded as a distinct species, forming separate clade from others#R; vocal differences also identified. Orange-bellied birds from Costa Rica and W Panama, described as aurantiiventris, has been treated as a separate species, and there are reports of assortative pairing; but because an identical individual was taken in S Mexico (Oaxaca), this form is now considered to be no more than a morph of present species, a view supported by molecular evidence#R. Validity of race extimus questionable. Proposed race xalapensis (Jalapa) considered indistinguishable from puella, and eytoni (Rio de Janeiro) apparently inseparable from castaneus; considerable uncertainty also about status of proposed races underwoodi from NW Costa Rica and flavidior from Panama (Cerro Flores). Eight subspecies currently recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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