Validity of races uncertain and frequently challenged; apparently clinal increase in size from N to S, but considerable variation in size in any one population; supposed subspecific differences in tone of upperparts also seems variable; birds from Kai Is (SE Moluccas), where even status as a resident is uncertain#R, may represent a racially mixed and possibly unstable population, although general characters perhaps closest to those of novaeguinae and provisionally included in latter; species may be more appropriately considered monotypic#R, but further study required. Race novaeguinae sometimes emended to novaeguineae, but apparently without justification. Three subspecies currently recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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