near Algiers, Algeria.
Closely related to T. maculosus, with which formerly considered conspecific, but differs in colour of plumage, bill and legs. Internal taxonomy rather complex and still somewhat provisional; conspecificity of Asian and African races requires re-evaluation. Nominate race very much larger and more colourful than sub-Saharan lepurana, suggesting that species status may be appropriate#R, although one analysis has found these taxa virtually identical genetically#R; further research needed. Race celestinoi of SE Philippines sometimes referred to T. maculosus: Mindanao claimed to hold two sympatric forms, celestinoi and masaaki, of which former referred to T. maculosus and latter to present species; it is not at all clear, however, that “true” celestinoi-type birds do occur on Mindanao, or that celestinoi and masaaki are indeed distinct; thus, as sympatry of two distinct forms is not demonstrated, on current evidence it appears safer to retain both forms in present species, and amalgamate masaaki with celestinoi. Several formerly recognized races now considered indistinguishable: alleni and arenarius merged into single African race lepurana; mikado sometimes accepted, but considered better merged into E Asian davidi. Nine subspecies normally recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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