Asia = Java.
Often treated as conspecific with G. indica and G. robusta and, in recent decades, always with G. venerata (which see). Race enganensis treated as full species in HBW, but not distinctive, although slightly longer-tailed than other subspecies of present species. Race miotera not recognized in most recent arrangements (including HBW), but has a larger white wing-flash than any Gracula except G. robusta (although only specimen sampled of currently unrecognized race halibrecta from Nicobars has similar-sized wing-flash). Birds from Java and Bali are smaller-billed than other populations included in nominate race, and Bali birds are shorter-winged and shorter-tailed than those from Java; whether these populations merit taxonomic recognition is currently under study. Eight subspecies recognized.
Introduced populations (probably nominate race) established in SE USA (Florida), Puerto Rico and Hawaii.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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