Family Starlings (Sturnidae)

Least Concern

Common Hill Myna (Gracula religiosa)


French: Mainate religieux German: Bergbeo Spanish: Miná religioso
Other common names: Enggano Myna, Enggano Hill Myna (enganensis)

Gracula religiosa


, 1758,

Asia = Java


Often treated as conspecific with G. indica and G. robusta and, in recent decades, always with G. venerata (which see). Race enganensis treated as full species in HBW, but not distinctive, although slightly longer-tailed than other subspecies of present species. Race miotera not recognized in most recent arrangements (including HBW), but has a larger white wing-flash than any Gracula except G. robusta (although only specimen sampled of currently unrecognized race halibrecta from Nicobars has similar-sized wing-flash). Birds from Java and Bali are smaller-billed than other populations included in nominate race, and Bali birds are shorter-winged and shorter-tailed than those from Java; whether these populations merit taxonomic recognition is currently under study. Eight subspecies recognized.

Subspecies and Distribution
  • G. r. peninsularis Whistler & Kinnear, 1933 – EC India (Odisha and SE Madhya Pradesh).
  • G. r. intermedia Hay#R#R, 1845 – N & NE Indian Subcontinent E to Myanmar and S China (including Hainan), S to N peninsular Thailand, Cambodia and Indochina.
  • G. r. andamanensis (Beavan, 1867) – Coco Is (S of W Myanmar), Andaman Is and Nicobar Is.
  • G. r. miotera Oberholser, 1912 – Simeulue.
  • G. r. batuensis Finsch, 1899 – Batu Is and Mentawai Is, off W Sumatra.
  • G. r. enganensis Salvadori, 1892 – Enggano I, W of S tip of Sumatra.
  • G. r. religiosa Linnaeus, 1758 – S Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Bangka I, Belitung, N Natunas, Borneo, Java and Bali.
  • G. r. palawanensis (Sharpe, 1890) – Palawan (W Philippines).
  • Introduced populations (probably nominate race) established in SE USA (Florida), Puerto Rico and Hawaii.

    Descriptive notes

    27–31 cm; 161–229 g. Large black myna with prominent bare yellow patches of skin on head. Nominate race has bare yellow patch below eye, and line of bare yellow... read more


    Four categories of call described: “chip-calls”, short descending squeaks, loud and... read more


    Regions with large trees, evergreen or deciduous, high rainfall and high humidity; edges of forest... read more

    Food and feeding

    Diet primarily fruit, also nectar, and insects and other small animal food, even small vertebrates (lizards). Figs (Ficus) an... read more


    Season Apr–Jul in India, Sept–Jul in SE Asia (mainly Jan–Jul in Thailand, Feb–Jul in Malaysia); recorded in Dec on... read more


    Resident; local movements, when large flocks concentrate at fruiting trees.

    Status and conservation

    Not globally threatened (Least Concern). Common in Indian Subcontinent; uncommon to locally fairly common in SE Asia. Introduced (probably nominate race) in SE USA (Florida... read more

    Recommended citation

    Craig, A., Feare, C. & Christie, D.A. (2019). Common Hill Myna (Gracula religiosa). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from on 6 December 2019).