French: Petit Iora German: Garteniora Spanish: Iora común
vicinity of Calcutta, West Bengal, India
Subspecies and Distribution
A. t. septentrionalis
Koelz, 1939 – foot of NW Himalayas in N India (Punjab, Himachal Pradesh).
A. t. tiphia
(Linnaeus, 1758) – foot of Himalayas from N India (E from Punjab) E to Bangladesh, and adjacent W Myanmar.
A. t. humei
E. C. S. Baker, 1922 – C Indian Subcontinent (E from Rajasthan).
A. t. multicolor
(J. F. Gmelin, 1789) – extreme S India and Sri Lanka.
A. t. philipi
Oustalet, 1886 – #RSC China (Yunnan), E Myanmar, N & C Thailand and N & C Indochina.
A. t. deignani
B. P. Hall, 1957 – Myanmar (except W, E & S).
A. t. horizoptera
Oberholser, 1912 – S Myanmar and C Thailand S to Malay Peninsula, and Sumatra and satellites (Nias I, Riau and Lingga Archipelagos, Bangka).
A. t. cambodiana
B. P. Hall, 1957 – SE Thailand and S Indochina.
A. t. aequanimis
Bangs, 1922 – W Philippines (Palawan) and N Borneo (Sabah), and satellite islands.
A. t. viridis
(Bonaparte, 1850) – Borneo (except N).
A. t. scapularis
(Horsfield, 1821) – Java and Bali.
12·5–13·5 cm; male 13–17 g, female 12–15 g (humei). Male nominate race breeding plumage (acquired by partial spring moult) has... read more
Female repertoire poorly documented. Territorial males noisy, vocally interactive, with range of... read more
Mangroves are about the only natural closed-canopy evergreen forest inhabited permanently.... read more
Food and feeding
Insects and other arthropods; rumoured to take small fruits, but this unconfirmed. Recorded preying on a bush frog. Prey items range... read more
Season Dec/Jan–Sept in Indian Subcontinent, but more tightly constrained to monsoon rain (to which said to react fast) in more... read more
Resident. Apparently local seasonal movements have been alleged to occur in W India (Kathiawar... read more
Status and conservation
Not globally threatened (Least Concern). Common more or less throughout range. Thrives even in suburbia; is a familiar sight in e.g. the planted parklands of Singapore city.... read more
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