Alauda cunicularia Vieillot, 1816, environs of Río de la Plata and in pampas, 1816,
environs of Río de la Plata and in pampas of Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Closely related to G. tenuirostris (which see). G. punensis may be sister to present species#R. Voice and geographical variation poorly understood. Analysis of the limited number of available recordings indicates that Andean races may constitute a separate species from lowland nominate race; deserticolor (with georgei) may represent another; in particular, recordings from extreme S of range (nominate) suggest a population with a very different voice (a nasal rhythmic series of double notes given during aerial display), indicating either that nominate cunicularia differs vocally from all others or that recordings in question are the only ones of true song during display; breadth of vocabulary not fully understood, however, and recordings attributed to particular taxa may not be taxon-specific. Racial identity of population in W Argentina (Salta S possibly to Mendoza) uncertain, presumed hellmayri. Distribution of races in need of careful review. Nine subspecies tentatively recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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