Sometimes considered conspecific with G. tenebrosa, but they are sympatric in Wallacea. Until recently lumped with G. galeata, which differs in its highly distinctive laughing call#R#R (4); somewhat less yellow on lower mandible (1); slightly higher, more squared-off frontal shield (1); and juvenile with yellower bill and legs and darker smoky-grey face and foreneck (2). Race meridionalis sometimes erroneously listed under junior name brachyptera. Many other races described; possible races correiana (Azores) and indica (Bengal) included in nominate, as are lucida (Poland) and vestigialis (Scotland); seychellarum (Seychelles) is synonymized with orientalis, as is intermediate Philippine population lozanoi. Five subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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