Family Starlings (Sturnidae)

Least Concern

Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis)


French: Martin triste German: Hirtenmaina Spanish: Miná común

Paradisea tristis


, 1766,

Philippines; error = India


Races perhaps intergrade to some extent in SW India (Kerala). Proposed forms naumanni and tristoides included in nominate#R. Two subspecies recognized.

Subspecies and Distribution
  • A. t. tristis (Linnaeus, 1766) – Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, S Kazakhstan, NW China (NW Xinjiang), Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan S to SE Iran, Afghanistan and almost entire Indian Subcontinent S from Himalayan foothills (except Sri Lanka), thence E to Myanmar, S China (Yunnan and Hainan), Thailand, Indochina, Malay Peninsula and Singapore.
  • A. t. melanosternus Legge, 1879 – Sri Lanka.
  • Widely introduced elsewhere.

    Descriptive notes

    23–27 cm; 82–143 g. Fairly large, stocky myna with brown, black and white plumage, short bristly feathers on forehead, feathers of crown and nape elongated and... read more


    Highly vocal at all times; mimics other birds, and captives imitate human speech. Song by both... read more


    Open country, avoiding forest; dry open woodland, floodplains, grasslands, cultivated areas,... read more

    Food and feeding

    Omnivorous, although insects often predominate in diet (stomach contents of 632 specimens from India held 82% insects by weight).... read more


    Season Mar–Aug in C Asia, in most months in Indian Subcontinent (mostly Apr–Jul over much of India; Jan–Mar, May–... read more


    Resident throughout range; some local or altitudinal movement recorded. Adults seen to forage 3 km... read more

    Status and conservation

    Not globally threatened. Common to very common and locally abundant within its original range, which probably extended only from Uzbekistan and Iran in the west through... read more

    Recommended citation

    Craig, A., Feare, C. & Garcia, E.F.J. (2020). Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from on 22 January 2020).