J. F. Gmelin, 1789,
Two recent studies#R#R found that this species, N. maculosus and N. leucopterus were closely related. Present species sometimes considered conspecific with N. jamaicensis; separation based on distinctly different voices. In Costa Rica, where both occur, there appear to be no constant morphological characters to distinguish the two vocal types. Costa Rican birds, originally all included in single race, costaricensis, now thought to include two species; as costaricensis currently recognized as a race of N. jamaicensis, individuals of present species in Costa Rica (and elsewhere in N) are referred to adjacent race panamensis, although they may represent an unnamed taxon. S populations recognized by some earlier authors as race cornutus#R, but now considered synonymous with nominate race#R, despite possible subtle differences in voice. Two subspecies currently accepted.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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