Probably closely related to C. semipalmatus, with which in past was sometimes considered conspecific; some hybridization on Baffin I (NE Canada). Has occasionally been thought to include C. placidus as a race. Distinction between subspecies based on moult; features changing clinally N–S, rather than E–W, make it impossible to draw dividing line in NW Europe. Race psammodromus, based on minor differences in average size, often regarded as a synonym of nominate, but now thought to be sufficiently distinct to warrant recognition#R. Proposed race kolymensis (from Kolyma Delta, in NE Siberia) considered inseparable from tundrae. Three subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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