“Canaries, America, Africa“= Cape Town, South Africa.
Often treated as conspecific with E. nigriloris, which see. Other proposed races include sousae (from São Tomé, where introduced), synonymized with jagoensis; schoutedeni (from Mbuji-Mayi, capital of Kasai-Oriental, in SC DRCongo), with cavendishi; and ngamiensis (from Shorobe, in NW Botswana), with niediecki. Race adesma sometimes listed as nyansae, but under ICZN Code this name permanently invalid (having been replaced owing to secondary homonymy prior to 1961)#R. Fifteen subspecies currently recognized.
Introduced (mainly nominate race and jagoensis) in many parts of world, including in Europe (Portugal, Spain), West Indies (Puerto Rico)#R and South America (Brazil#R, Trinidad#R) and on islands in Atlantic (Bermuda#R, Canaries#R, Cape Verde, Ascension, St Helena), in Gulf of Guinea (São Tomé and Príncipe), in Indian Ocean (Seychelles Is, Amirantes Is, Juan de Nova I, Mauritius, Reunion, Rodrigues, Amsterdam, perhaps Madagascar)#R, in Pacific Ocean (New Caledonia, Vanuatu#R, Tahiti, Hawaii) and Taiwan#R.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
Only subscribers are able to see the bibliography. Login or Subscribe to get access to a lot of extra features!