Related to C. trocaz and C. bollii of Macaronesia and C. unicincta of Africa; probably also to C. junoniae of Canary Is. Race iranica intergrades with nominate in E Turkey and Transcaucasia. Proposed races excelsa (NW Africa), ghigii (Sardinia) and kleinschmidti (C Scotland) all currently lumped into nominate#R, and kirmanica (SE Iran) into casiotis. Four extant subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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