Has normally been treated as conspecific with C. plancus, and also frequently with †C. lutosa. Recently split from former#R, from which differs in its breast with “dark spots or wedge-shaped bars, heavier posteriorly” vs “dark and light bars over entire breast area” (2); pale wedge-shaped patch with broad black bars on upper back, scapulars always black vs upper back and scapulars finely barred with no wedge-shaped patch (2); barred upper back, black lower back, white uppertail-coverts and barred tail vs upper back to tail barred (2); vent area pale vs dark (ns); narrow hybrid zone (2). Northern birds have sometimes been separated as race audubonii (described from Florida), those of Sonora (NW Mexico) as ammophilus, and those of Tres Marías Is (off W Mexico) as pallida, but claimed differences in plumage tone appear to be due to wear and those of size to clinal variation#R. Monotypic.
S USA (Texas to Arizona; Florida) and Mexico (including Tres Marías Is) through Central America to Panama and Colombia, then E to the Guianas and S to N Peru and R Amazon (N Maranhão); also Cuba and I of Pines, and from Aruba (Leeward Antilles) to Trinidad.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
Only subscribers are able to see the bibliography. Login or Subscribe to get access to a lot of extra features!