Family Parrots (Psittacidae)

Near Threatened

Cuban Amazon (Amazona leucocephala)


French: Amazone de Cuba German: Kubaamazone Spanish: Amazona cubana
Other common names: Cuban Parrot

Psittacus leucocephalus


, 1758,

eastern Cuba


Part of the Greater Antillean lineage (see A. agilis). Has been thought to be closest to A. collaria and A. ventralis, and these three sometimes believed possibly to be conspecific. Birds of I of Pines formerly awarded race palmarum, now considered doubtfully distinct from nominate. In Bahama Is, race bahamensis extinct in Acklins I, and surviving Bahamian populations proposed as races abacoensis (Great Abaco) and inaguaensis (Great Inagua)#R; in a separate study it was suggested that these three forms represent three distinct phylogenetic species#R; further investigation needed. Four subspecies currently recognized.

Subspecies and Distribution
  • A. l. bahamensis (H. Bryant, 1867) – Great Abaco and Great Inagua, in Bahama Is.
  • A. l. leucocephala (Linnaeus, 1758) – Cuba and I of Pines.
  • A. l. caymanensis (Cory, 1886) – Grand Cayman I (W Cayman Is).
  • A. l. hesterna Bangs, 1916 – Cayman Brac and formerly Little Cayman (E Cayman Is).
  • Descriptive notes

    32 cm; 180–320 g. Forehead, crown and area round eyes white, including bare white periorbital ring; lores, cheeks and throat pinkish red; ear-coverts blackish; purplish... read more


    A variety of screeches and calls, most with a rather nasal tonal quality. In flight, also some... read more


    Limestone forest, dry mixed broadleaf woodland, savanna with stands of pine Pinus caribaea... read more

    Food and feeding

    Fruits and/or seeds of wide variety of plants, notably unripe Pinus caribaea, plus Bursera, Ficus, Petitia... read more


    Mar–Jun. Nest in hole in tree, e.g. Avicennia mangrove and various palms; on Abaco in limestone holes in ground. Eggs 2... read more


    No information, but some wandering outside the breeding season likely on Cuba.

    Status and conservation

    Not globally threatened. Currently considered Near Threatened. CITES I. Originally much more numerous throughout; now extirpated from parts of former range due to habitat... read more

    Recommended citation

    Collar, N., Boesman, P., Kirwan, G.M. & Sharpe, C.J. (2020). Cuban Amazon (Amazona leucocephala). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from on 23 February 2020).