French: Junco ardoisé German: Winterammer Spanish: Junco pizarroso
South Carolina, USA
Subspecies and Distribution
J. h. hyemalis
(Linnaeus, 1758) – Slate-colored Junco – Alaska and across Canada from C Yukon, NW & C Mackenzie and SW Nunavut E to N Quebec, Labrador and Newfoundland and S to NE British Columbia, C Alberta, C Saskatchewan, S Manitoba and NE USA (S to C Minnesota, SE Wisconsin, C Michigan, W & N Pennsylvania, SE New York, Connecticut and Massachusetts); non-breeding from S edge of breeding range S (mostly E of Rocky Mts) to NW Mexico (N Baja California, N Sonora and C Chihuahua) and Gulf Coast (S Texas E to NE Florida).
J. h. cismontanus
Dwight, 1918 – SC Yukon S to C interior of British Columbia and WC Alberta; non-breeding from S coastal British Columbia S to extreme NW Mexico (N Baja California) and SW USA (S to Arizona and New Mexico, E to Minnesota, Wisconsin, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma and C Texas.
J. h. carolinensis
Brewster, 1886 – E USA in Appalachian Mts (from NW West Virginia and W Maryland S to N Georgia); winters in breeding area, and adjacent lower elevations.
J. h. oreganus
(J. K. Townsend, 1837) – Oregon Junco – SE Alaska S to Calvert I, in CW British Columbia; non-breeding also S along coast to C (rarely S) California.
J. h. shufeldti
Coale, 1887 – W slope of coastal ranges from SW British Columbia S in W USA to W Oregon (to c. 43° N); non-breeding S to S California, sparsely also to SE Idaho, Colorado, W Texas and N Mexico (Chihuahua).
J. h. montanus
Ridgway, 1898 – C interior British Columbia and SW Alberta S in W USA to E Oregon, W Montana and C Idaho; non-breeding to S British Columbia, W Montana and South Dakota S to N Mexico (N Baja California, N Sonora and C Chihuahua) and S USA (to C Texas and E Kansas).
J. h. thurberi
Anthony, 1890 – S Oregon and California (S on coast to San Francisco, and in interior mountains to San Diego County); non-breeding also in adjacent lowlands E to Arizona and SW New Mexico and S to NW Mexico (Baja California and Sonora).
J. h. pinosus
Loomis, 1893 – coastal ranges of C California (from San Francisco S to San Benito and S Monterey County).
J. h. pontilis
Oberholser, 1919 – Sierra Juárez, in N Baja California (NW Mexico).
J. h. townsendi
Anthony, 1889 – Sierra San Pedro Mártir, in N Baja California.
J. h. aikeni
Ridgway, 1873 – White-winged Junco – SE Montana, W South Dakota, NE Wyoming and NW Nebraska; non-breeding also S to SW Colorado, W Kansas, N New Mexico and W Oklahoma.
J. h. mearnsi
Ridgway, 1897 – Pink-sided Junco – extreme S Canada (SE Alberta and SW Saskatchewan) S in USA to E Idaho, C Montana and NE Wyoming; non-breeding from N Utah, NW Wyoming and W & C Nebraska S to N Mexico (N Sonora, C Chihuahua and Durango) and W Texas.
J. h. caniceps
(Woodhouse, 1853) – Gray-headed Junco – mountains of S Idaho and S Wyoming S to C & E Nevada, S Utah, W & C Colorado and N New Mexico; non-breeding also E to W Nebraska, W Kansas and W Texas, S to N Mexico (Sonora, N Sinaloa, Chihuahua and N Durango).
J. h. dorsalis
Henry, 1858 – mountains of New Mexico, extreme W Texas and N Arizona; non-breeding also slightly farther S.
J. h. mutabilis
van Rossem, 1931 – mountains of S Nevada and adjacent SE California.
13–17 cm, 14·3–25·4 g (“hyemalis group”, Pennsylvania); 14–15·4 cm, male average 18 g, female 17·8 g (... read more
Song, used commonly during breeding season and given throughout year, usually from tree perch,... read more
Breeds in variety of woodlands, especially open woodlands with conifers, and cut-over woodlands;... read more
Food and feeding
In studies in W USA (California), diet for all months combined (except May) consisted of 24% animal items and 76% vegetable matter. Insects... read more
Apr–Aug on coast and from Jun in interior in British Columbia, May–Jul in Ontario, Apr–Aug in Virginia, May in Sierra San... read more
Mostly migratory; males migrate earlier than females, and tend (in E) to winter farther N, but... read more
Status and conservation
Not globally threatened (Least Concern). Often common or very common in appropriate habitat throughout range; global population estimate 260 million individuals. Forest-... read more
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