d’Orbigny and Lafresnaye, 1837,
Guarayos, Santa Cruz, Bolivia.
Almost certainly more than one species involved. Phylogenetic analysis of mtDNA#R indicates that those Mexican and Panamanian populations examined are more closely related to M. barbirostris than to most South American populations of present species; populations of nominate race from Argentina, lowland Ecuador and Guyana formed a well-supported clade. Taxonomic status of atriceps particularly doubtful: birds from N extremity of range (Ecuador) closely related to Mexican and Panamanian populations of platyrhynchus (sensu lato) and nigricapillus, whereas those from S extremity (Argentina) closer to nominate; furthermore, there are minor but constant morphological differences in plumage and size between N (Ecuador, Peru, N Bolivia) and S populations; molecular diversity in C part of range in Bolivia needs study in order to understand patterns of diversity and assess merit of giving atriceps species rank. In addition, races intergrade widely and differences described in unsatisfactory terms of dorsal shading. Long-overdue revision needed, including thorough reassessment of variation in Middle and North American populations. Thirteen subspecies tentatively recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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