Himalayas [= Simla–Almora district].
Usually considered conspecific with C. carduelis, but differs in its lack of black crown and vertical line behind ear-coverts (3); much less white on head sides (ns); cold grey vs warm pale brown breast and mantle to wing-coverts and lower back (2); broad white outer vanes to tertials, no white tips to secondaries, creating different closed-wing pattern (2); longer bill (at least 1); harsher, less tinkling song with mainly repeated series of notes (2)#R; narrow hybrid zone at Gorgan, Iran, between C. c. brevirostris and race paropanisi of present species, and apparently broader hybrid zone in Central Asia involving C. c. frigoris and race subulata of present species (score 1). Has hybridized with Chloris chloris. Four subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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