Formerly considered conspecific with A. adalberti. E populations have occasionally been separated as race ricketti, but generally considered undiagnosable. Monotypic.
C & SE Europe (from Austria, E Czech Republic, Slovakia and N Hungary) and Turkey, Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan E to NW China (W Xinjiang), C Transbaikalia, probably N Mongolia and perhaps NE China (Inner Mongolia), in breeding season reaching N to c. 55° N in European Russia. Winters S to NE & E Africa (S to Kenya, exceptionally N Tanzania; once to Cameroon), Arabia, Iran, E Afghanistan and N Indian Subcontinent (from E Pakistan to Bangladesh, S to Gujarat, more exceptionally Maharashtra and even Tamil Nadu), E & SE China, N Myanmar (once), Thailand, N Indochina and recently S to Singapore; occasional in winter N to Primorye (SE Russia), Korea and Japan (mainly Honshu, but also Shikoku, Kyushu and Ishigaki-jima), as well as Taiwan.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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