South Carolina, USA.
Taxon lilianae was treated as a separate species in HBW on morphological, vocal and genetic grounds#R, but differences in morphology minor, while vocal characters (steeply downslurred whistles in song) are shared with taxa in Middle and South America (populations elsewhere in USA and E Mexico have rather flat whistles, while those in E Andes of Venezuela and NE Colombia have several upslurred or underslurred whistles and some distinctly buzzy notes)#R; races auropectoralis and saundersi are sometimes considered part of same group as lilianae; research needed on all of these groups, especially to determine their precise (or imprecise) borders. Statement in HBW that race hippocrepis may merit full species rank needs expansion; differs from others somewhat vocally, song typically ending with a buzz or rattle (2) and notes on average shorter and less slurred (i.e. with different shape) (1). Subspecific limits, especially in South America, need further study, e.g. race monticola commonly subsumed into praticola; distributions listed below tentative. Populations in French Guiana and NE Brazil (Amapá) sometimes treated as race quinta, but type specimen of latter is from Roraima (N Brazil), technically within range of monticola (or praticola); these three taxa require re-evaluation. Race inexspectata often listed as “inexpectata” but this is an unjustified emendation. Sixteen subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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