Hitherto considered conspecific with S. suratensis but indicated as a likely separate species#R. It differs in its yellow to orange iris and narrow grey or blue-grey eyering vs reddish to red iris and red eyering (3); plumage pattern of upperparts greatly emphasizes dark central bars to feathers vs buff tips, thus appearing predominantly dark-spotted vs pale-spotted (2); song typically (and perhaps always) less protracted since it lacks repetition of main stressed note (2); size generally larger (informally 1); zone of intergradation in “Cachar, Manipur, etc.”#R (assumed to be wide: 1). Race tigrina is distinctive, with dark-spotted upperparts vs almost plain, narrowly scaled in chinensis. Birds of Hainan sometimes separated as hainana; and those of Taiwan as formosa; several other races proposed, including setzeri (Sichuan), forresti (NW Yunnan) and vacillans (SE Yunnan). Two subspecies currently recognized.
Introduced to Sulawesi (including many satellite islands), Moluccas (Buru, Banda, Ambon, Seram, Sawai, Obi, Bacan, Halmahera, Haruku, Loleba Besar, Morotai, Ternate, Tidore, Sula, Kai Kecil), Mauritius, E Australia and Tasmania, New Zealand (Auckland), New Caledonia, Fiji (Viti Levu, Vanua Levu, Taveuni, Lau Is), Hawaii (Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Maui, Hawai) and continental USA (California); formerly New Britain (Rabul).
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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