J. F. Gmelin, 1789,
coast of Chukotskiy Peninsula.
Until recently considered conspecific with M. flava, but remarkably distinct genetically#R#R#R, and (although showing no consistent diagnostic plumage characters) differs in its longer hind-claw#R (2); distinctive song, with faster pace (2), higher number of notes (3) and slightly higher minimum frequency (ns); and subtle flight call differences#R (ns). Some studies, using mitochondrial DNA, have suggested that present species might be separated into at least two—plexa and tschutschensis, and taivana plus macronyx—with first two closest to E nominate form of M. citreola and latter two closest to W race (M. c. werae). Race plexa judged too indistinct from race thunbergi of M. flava to recognize#R, but study in W Siberia (C Russia), near where birds genetically identified as plexa were collected, found that birds morphologically like thunbergi (i.e. arguably plexa and therefore presumably with longer claws than thunbergi) occupied bogs while beema co-occurred in floodplain grassland#R, suggesting two species involved, consistent with arrangement here. Race alascensis (W Alaska) synonymized with nominate; race simillima possibly better included in nominate, and angarensis in latter or in macronyx. Six subspecies recognized.
Only subscribers are able to see the bibliography. Login or Subscribe to get access to a lot of extra features!