Geographical variation very slight and largely clinal, and racial boundaries poorly marked; nominate race intergrades with dammholzi in Turkey, Crimea and NW Caucasus, and heineken and pauluccii intergrade widely in Spain and NW Africa. Proposed race riphaea (described from SE Urals, in W Russia) synonymized with nominate, koenigi (Mallorca) with pauluccii, obscura (Madeira) with heineken, and atlantis (Azores) with gularis. Five subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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