Family Swallows and Martins (Hirundinidae)

Least Concern

Eurasian Crag Martin (Ptyonoprogne rupestris)


French: Hirondelle de rochers German: Felsenschwalbe Spanish: Avión roquero

Hirundo rupestris


, 1769,

Tirol, Austria


Has been considered conspecific with all other members of genus, but breeding ranges overlap. Birds from C Asia and S Morocco proposed, respectively, as races centralasica and theresae on basis of size, but variation not constant. Monotypic.


S & SC Europe (S from S France, S Germany, Austria, Romania), NW Africa (Morocco E to Tunisia and NE Libya), and from Asia Minor, Caucasus and Near East (S to Israel) E to Iran, S Russia (E to SW Siberia) and N Mongolia and, in S, to Himalayas (from Pakistan to Bhutan) and W, N & SC China; winters in Mediterranean region, N & NE Africa (also Mauritania and Senegal), Middle East and S Asia.

Descriptive notes

14–15 cm; 17–33 g. Has brown-grey crown and upperparts, dark brown wings and tail; tail square, white spots on inner webs of feathers (except inner and outermost... read more


Soft twittering song; calls include a contact call “prrrt”, low- and high-intensity... read more


Mountains, crags and coastal cliffs; also around human habitations. In Europe from sea-level to... read more

Food and feeding

Diet includes flies (Diptera), stoneflies (Plecoptera), caddis flies (Trichoptera), beetles (Coleoptera), bugs (Hemiptera), butterflies and... read more


May–Aug; two broods. Solitary, or in small groups of usually 2–20, in Spain average c. 4·5–6·1 pairs (range... read more


Populations in N of range generally migratory; resident in S. Forms post-breeding flocks of up to... read more

Status and conservation

Not globally threatened (Least Concern). Widespread and locally fairly common or common, e.g. throughout Mediterranean region. Distribution patchy and breeding irregular in N... read more

Recommended citation

Turner, A. (2019). Eurasian Crag Martin (Ptyonoprogne rupestris). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from on 12 December 2019).