Has been considered conspecific with all other members of genus, but breeding ranges overlap. Birds from C Asia and S Morocco proposed, respectively, as races centralasica and theresae on basis of size, but variation not constant. Monotypic.
S & SC Europe (S from S France, S Germany, Austria, Romania), NW Africa (Morocco E to Tunisia and NE Libya), and from Asia Minor, Caucasus and Near East (S to Israel) E to Iran, S Russia (E to SW Siberia) and N Mongolia and, in S, to Himalayas (from Pakistan to Bhutan) and W, N & SC China; winters in Mediterranean region, N & NE Africa (also Mauritania and Senegal), Middle East and S Asia.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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