Family Old World Orioles (Oriolidae)

Least Concern

Eurasian Golden Oriole (Oriolus oriolus)


French: Loriot d’Europe German: Pirol Spanish: Oropéndola europea

Coracias Oriolus


, 1758,

“in Europe and Asia” = Sweden


Forms clade with O. kundoo, O. auratus, O. chinensis and probably also O. tenuirostris (not sampled), as confirmed by recent genetic study#R. Formerly considered conspecific with O. kundoo. Proposed races caucasicus (N Iran) and sibiricus (SC Siberia) inseparable from birds in rest of range. Monotypic.


W, C & S Europe (S from S Finland) and N Africa (Morocco to Tunisia) E to Altai Mts (S Siberia, W Mongolia and extreme NW China) and, in S, to N Iran and locally to N Arabian Peninsula; non-breeding in sub-Saharan Africa.

Descriptive notes

24–25 cm; 42–102 g. Male has head, upperparts and entire underparts rich golden-yellow; lores black; wing velvet-black, broad yellow tips on primary coverts (... read more


Loud, melodious, liquid, fluty whistles, e.g. “weeka-laweela-weeo”, “weelo-wallo-... read more


In W Europe, usually in semi-open, mixed broadleaf woodlands and plantations, riverine forests with... read more

Food and feeding

Mainly small invertebrates and fruits; occasionally seeds, nectar, pollen; rarely, small lizards, small mammals, eggs and nestlings. Diet... read more


Egg-laying mainly in May–Jun, sometimes early Jul. After arriving on territory, male starts singing and chases away intruders,... read more


Migratory. Migrates mostly at night, but spring passage also during day. In autumn (Jul–Sept... read more

Status and conservation

Not globally threatened. Estimated European population of 6,700,000–14,000,000 individuals and a large range of c. 10,000,000 km² make this a species of least... read more

Recommended citation

Walther, B. & Jones, P. (2020). Eurasian Golden Oriole (Oriolus oriolus). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from on 8 April 2020).