“in Europe and Asia” = Sweden.
Forms clade with O. kundoo, O. auratus, O. chinensis and probably also O. tenuirostris (not sampled), as confirmed by recent genetic study#R. Formerly considered conspecific with O. kundoo. Proposed races caucasicus (N Iran) and sibiricus (SC Siberia) inseparable from birds in rest of range. Monotypic.
W, C & S Europe (S from S Finland) and N Africa (Morocco to Tunisia) E to Altai Mts (S Siberia, W Mongolia and extreme NW China) and, in S, to N Iran and locally to N Arabian Peninsula; non-breeding in sub-Saharan Africa.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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