Family Crows and Jays (Corvidae)

Least Concern

Eurasian Jackdaw (Corvus monedula)


French: Choucas des tours German: Dohle Spanish: Grajilla occidental
Other common names: Western Jackdaw

Corvus Monedula


, 1758,

Europe = Sweden


See C. dauuricus. Geographical variation complex, with individual and clinal variation. Other proposed races are turrium, brehmi and hilgerti (all described from Germany), ibericus (S Spain) and nigerrimus (Morocco), all synonymized with spermologus, and tischleri (NE Poland), sophiae (E Poland), schluteri (Belarus), collaris (Macedonia), pontocaspicus (Cyprus) and ultracollaris (Tien Shan), all included in soemmerringii. Four subspecies currently recognized.

Subspecies and Distribution
  • C. m. monedula Linnaeus, 1758 – Scandinavia to N Alps, Carpathian Mts and W Russia.
  • C. m. spermologus Vieillot, 1817 – W & S Europe from British Is, E to Italy, S to Morocco and NW Algeria.
  • C. m. cirtensis (Rothschild & E. J. O. Hartert, 1912) – NE Algeria.
  • C. m. soemmerringii J. G. Fischer von Waldheim, 1811 – E & SE Europe to Turkey, Cyprus and N Israel, E in Asia to SC Siberia, W Mongolia, W China (N & W Xinjiang) and Kashmir. Winters in N Middle East and E to NW India.
  • Descriptive notes

    34–39 cm; 136–265 g; wingspan 64–74 cm. Small, sociable crow with moderately long tail somewhat rounded at tip, small and short bill; flattish forecrown,... read more


    Typical call an abrupt, high-pitched "chjak", given singly, or excitedly repeated 7... read more


    Inhabits great variety of open country, preferably with scattered trees. Favours mixed farmland,... read more

    Food and feeding

    Omnivorous, but less of a carnivorous scavenger than most congeners. In one study, 84% of diet plant materials, including grain, seeds and... read more


    Laying from late Apr in Britain and N Europe, mid-Apr in C Europe, and first half May in NW Russia and in C Asia and Kashmir. Long-term... read more


    In W & S Europe resident or short-distance migrant, some reaching N Africa; native N African... read more

    Status and conservation

    Not globally threatened. Abundant in most of range, but apparent population decreases over recent decades in most European countries. Following estimates (territories/pairs)... read more

    Recommended citation

    Madge, S. & de Juana, E. (2020). Eurasian Jackdaw (Corvus monedula). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from on 25 February 2020).