Sometimes considered to form a species-group with G. brodiei and G. perlatum, and New World G. gnoma (with recently separated G. cobanense and G. hoskinsii) and G. californicum, but DNA evidence shows that present species and G. californicum are not closely related. Race orientale intergrades with nominate in W Siberia and Altai Mts. Two subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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