Formerly considered by many to include O. enganensis, O. umbra, O. senegalensis, O. hartlaubi, O. brucei, O. longicornis, O. mirus, O. mindorensis, O. sunia, O. elegans and O. mantananensis; all of these now shown to be separated specifically by voice and, in some cases, by DNA. Nominate race intergrades with pulchellus in region of R Volga. Proposed race vincii (from Italy) is synonymized with nominate. Race cyprius may be considered specifically distinct, based on differences in song (double-note) and plumage colour (darker)#R. Six subspecies recognized.
In winter, in S of Sahara from S Mauritania E to Eritrea, S to S Cameroon, Kenya and Somalia; also, locally around Mediterranean.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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