Europe = Sweden.
Has been considered conspecific with A. gulgula. Race japonica sometimes considered a race of latter species owing to similarities in plumage and structure; alternatively, treated by many as a separate species based on constant differences in plumage and apparent sympatric breeding with race lonnbergi of present species in Sakhalin, but limits of E taxa disputed by others; further study required. Many races described, but distributions and geographical boundaries poorly understood, obscured by considerable individual variation within populations, also by intergradation, and most taxa identifiable only by comparing series of specimens at same stage of plumage wear; validity of some generally accepted taxa remains questionable. Other proposed races sometimes recognized include ticehursti (NW Iberia), included in guillelmi; dementievi (SE of Caspian Sea), in dulcivox; alticola (SE Altai), in kiborti; nigrescens (Amur Basin), in intermedia; and buxtoni (NE coast of Sea of Okhotsk), in pekinensis. Thirteen subspecies tentatively recognized.
Introduced (scotica) in New Zealand and Australia; nominate in W Canada (Vancouver I); and both races in Hawaii.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
Only subscribers are able to see the bibliography. Login or Subscribe to get access to a lot of extra features!