Family Finches (Fringillidae)

Least Concern

European Greenfinch (Chloris chloris)


French: Verdier d’Europe German: Grünfink Spanish: Verderón común

Loxia Chloris


, 1758,



Has hybridized with Carduelis carduelis, C. caniceps, C. corsicana and Linaria cannabina. Ten subspecies recognized.

Subspecies and Distribution
  • C. c. harrisoni Clancey, 1940 – Britain (except N Scotland) and Ireland.
  • C. c. chloris (Linnaeus, 1758) – N Scotland, Norway and N & C France E to C Urals, NW Kazakhstan and W Siberia, S to Hungary and N Ukraine; NE breeders migrate to S Europe.
  • C. c. aurantiiventris (Cabanis, 1851) – Madeira, Canary Is, S France and Spain (except NW) E to Croatia, W & S Greece, Crete and Dodecanese, also N Tunisia & NW Libya; winters also in Morocco E to N Egypt.
  • C. c. muehlei Parrot, 1905 – Serbia, Macedonia, Romania and Moldova S to C & E Greece, Cyprus and W Turkey.
  • C. c. vanmarli Voous, 1952 – #RNW Spain, Portugal and NW Morocco.
  • C. c. voousi (Roselaar, 1993) – C Morocco E to N Algeria.
  • C. c. madaraszi Tschusi, 1911 – Corsica and Sardinia.
  • C. c. chlorotica (Bonaparte, 1850) – SC Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, W Jordan and NE Egypt.
  • C. c. bilkevitchi Zarudny, 1911 – S Ukraine (Crimea) E to Caucasus, NE Turkey, N Iran and SW Turkmenistan.
  • C. c. turkestanica Zarudny, 1907 – W & N Tien Shan from S & SE Kazakhstan S to Kyrgyzstan and C Tajikistan; winters S to NW Afghanistan.
  • Introduced to Azores (aurantiiventris), NE Argentina and Uruguay (race unknown), and S Australia (including Tasmania), New Zealand and Chatham Is (nominate race).

    Descriptive notes

    14·5–16 cm; c. 17–34 g (nominate). Medium-sized broad-headed finch with strong conical bill and short forked tail. Male nominate race is olive-green,... read more


    Song, by male between Jan (occasionally late Dec) and mid-Aug, from treetop or prominent perch or... read more


    Wide range of habitats in boreal, temperate, steppe and Mediterranean zones, including edges of... read more

    Food and feeding

    Wide variety of seeds, buds, flowers, berries, fruit; also some arthropods. Seeds, buds and flowers include those of yew (Taxus),... read more


    Season mid-Mar to mid-Aug, peak mid-May to early Jul; two broods. Monogamous; a few polygamous, including male paired with up to five... read more


    Resident and migratory. Within breeding range becomes highly mobile in non-breeding season, flocks... read more

    Status and conservation

    Not globally threatened. Common or locally common; in some areas abundant. Estimated European breeding population between 12,000,000 and 14,500,000 pairs, with up to a... read more

    Recommended citation

    Clement, P. & de Juana, E. (2020). European Greenfinch (Chloris chloris). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from on 21 January 2020).