Family Hawks, Eagles (Accipitridae)

Least Concern

Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis)


French: Buse rouilleuse German: Königsbussard Spanish: Busardo herrumbroso

Archibuteo regalis

G. R. Gray

, 1844,

Real del Monte, Hidalgo, Mexico


Formerly placed, together with B. lagopus, in now obsolete genus Triorchis or Archibuteo. Monotypic.


S Canada from S Alberta to SW Manitoba, S through WC USA to Arizona, New Mexico and NW Texas; winters S to N Mexico (Baja California, Sonora, Durango, Coahuila) and irregularly to C Mexico.

Descriptive notes

50–66 cm; 980–2030 g, male averages 1050 g, female 1230 g; wingspan 134–152 cm. Largest Buteo, with pale head, broad wings and robust legs and feet... read more


Rather silent. Main call a loud raspy scream, “kraaaah”, c. 1·5 seconds long and... read more


Arid and semi-arid grasslands, sagebrush (Artemisia) and saltbush (Atriplex)... read more

Food and feeding

Relatively narrow diet consisting mainly of mammals (95% by biomass, 83% by frequency), particularly rabbits (Sylvilagus), hares... read more


Nests initiated from Mar–May depending on latitude; in Canada, laying c. 2 weeks later than in centre of range. Large, bulky stick... read more


N populations (Alberta and Saskatchewan in S Canada, Washington east to North Dakota in N USA)... read more

Status and conservation

Not globally threatened (Least Concern). CITES II. Local losses and perceived reduction of entire population have led to calls for listing as threatened species in USA; not... read more

Recommended citation

White, C.M., Boesman, P. & Marks, J.S. (2019). Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from on 20 May 2019).