J. F. Gmelin, 1788,
Thought to be closest to G. tucumanum, G. peruanum and G. nana. Has been considered to include those as races, but recent studies have shown all to be vocally distinct and to differ in DNA. In the past treated as conspecific with G. jardinii, but again differs in vocalizations and DNA. N populations (cactorum, intermedium, ridgwayi) recently proposed as forming a separate species (G. ridgwayi); treatment as such#R#R based on “DNA evidence and vocalisations”, but account of song reports it as “similar… but… slower” at 2.5–3 vs 3 notes per second, suggesting that distinction very slight. Birds from S Mexico (Chiapas) and Guatemala sometimes separated as race saturatum. Race ucayalae also suggested as possibly a separate species, differing genetically and vocally#R; more study required. Form intermedium often synonymized with cactorum, but probably worthy of recognition#R. Race pallens perhaps better placed in G. tucumanum; placement of medianum, phaloenoides and duidae with present species has also been questioned#R#R. Twelve subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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