Cedrobamba ruins, Machu Picchu, 12,000 feet [c. 3660 m], Peru.
Formerly listed as Oreomanes fraseri, but that genus found to be embedded in Conirostrum#R; with transfer to present genus name fraseri becomes preoccupied (by C. fraseri) and is replaced by binghami#R. Geographical variation minor, partly clinal, and with chequerboard pattern, in general bill length increasing from N to S, plumage becoming paler from N to S, and differences in facial plumage varying independently of geographical location (and often much variation within a single population); proposed race described from Cedrobamba Ruins, near Machu Picchu, at timber-line in SE Peru (under the name of binghami, now the species name) as well as sturninus (from Finca Salo, at c. 3960 m in Potosí, in Bolivia), considered undiagnosable. Has hybridized with C. ferrugineiventre. Monotypic.
Extreme S Colombia (volcanoes on border) S in high Andes to Ecuador (S to Azuay and N Loja), and NC Peru S to extreme N Chile (Tarapacá), Bolivia and NW Argentina.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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