Dumont de Sainte Croix, 1816,
Sarayacu, Río Ucayali, Peru.
Until recently, treated as conspecific with C. niger (which see); recent genetic study indicates that these two and C. brunneipectus are all distinct species and are each other’s closest relatives#R. Present species long considered to include C. brunneipectus as race, but latter differs markedly in morphology from all races of present species, and has distinctive song. In context of internal taxonomy of present species, the same genetic study#R suggests that Ucayali–Solimões–Amazon act as a river barrier, with populations to N & W showing notable genetic differences from those to S & E, but no corresponding morphological differences have been detected to date; some subspecies as currently recognized appear to be polyphyletic; further study required. Many races intergrade. Other races described from NW Brazil are transilens (upper R Negro), considered synonymous with nitidior, and novaolindae (Nova Olinda) and arimae (R Purus), both treated as synonymous with amazonicus, possibly fitting into a cline from orange-throated insperatus in S towards red-throated amazonicus in N; birds described as race intermedius (WC Venezuela) inseparable from aurantiicinctus; forms macintyrei (from SW Colombia and Ecuador) and conjunctus (from Peru) fall within range of variation of punctatus. Form bolivianus known only from type specimen of unknown locality, possibly from R Beni (N Bolivia); now thought most likely to be aberrant individual of insperatus. Eight subspecies currently recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
Only subscribers are able to see the bibliography. Login or Subscribe to get access to a lot of extra features!