southern Dauria and Kultuk, Mongolia [= southern Lake Baikal, Russia].
Formerly treated as conspecific with E. cia; races stracheyi and flemingorum of latter sometimes still placed in present species. Recent phylogenetic analysis indicated that, according to cytochrome b tree, interrelationships among present species, E. cia and E. cioides are unresolved; still more recent analysis suggests that nominate race, decolorata and omissa are genetically closer to E. jankowskii and E. cioides than they are to S races yunnanensis and khamensis, but integrative study required before changes made to current arrangement#R. Proposed races nanshanica, described from C China (R Churmyk, basin of upper Hwang He, in E Qinghai), and gobica, from WC Mongolia (S slope of Khangai Mts), synonymized with nominate; also in C China, styani (from Songpan, in W Sichuan) and bangsi (from Pashui, in Shaanxi) are treated as synonyms of omissa. Five subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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