Panama City, Panama.
Phylogenetic study#R supports sister relationship between present species and W races of M. manacus. See also M. candei; differs from that species and from M. aurantiacus in characters given under those species. Differs from M. manacus in its (in males) yellow vs white (or very pale yellow in M. m. flaveolus) chin to breast, head sides and mantle (3); olive-green vs dirty white lower breast to vent (3); olive-green vs grey rump and uppertail-coverts (3); and (females) slightly brighter olive-green underparts with slightly yellower belly (ns); plus narrow hybrid zone in Colombia (lower Cauca Valley, also SW Cauca) (2). Four subspecies recognized.
10–11 cm; male 19·3 g, female 17·1 g. Male nominate race has black cap, golden-yellow on rest of head, upper mantle, shoulders, and chin to breast, throat feathers elongated (projected forwards well beyond bill tip in display); black back, wings and tail, olive lower back; four outermost primaries very narrow and stiff, secondaries with unusually thick shafts and stiff outer webs; lower underparts pale olive; iris dark brown; bill blackish; legs reddish-orange. Female has dull olive head and upperparts, paler and more olive-yellow below. Juvenile resembles female. Races differ mainly in size and in intensity of male coloration: amitinus is noticeably larger than others; milleri resembles nominate; viridiventris has brighter lemon-yellow throat.
Forest borders and secondary woodland, also dense regenerating clearings; lowlands and foothills, to 450 m in Panama, to 1200 m in Colombia.
Food and feeding
Egg-laying in Feb–Aug in Panama; in Colombia Feb–May in N (Chocó, N Antioquia), probably Jul in S (Valle). Male displays with others at lek, each clearing a small “court” in which several vertical stems present, displays mainly by jumping between stems with “about-face” on landing, also occasional crouching with head retracted, body swaying and wings beating, and with throat feathers projected forwards; when female visits, both sexes perform co-ordinated to-and-fro jumps between mating stem and an adjacent one, crossing in mid-air, female finally landing on mating perch, male then jumping to ground, leaping back up to mating stem and sliding down it. Nest a thinly woven shallow cup of rootlets and fungal hyphae, lined with finer material, slung between horizontal supports, and secured with cobweb, 0·6–1·5 m above ground. Clutch 2 eggs; incubation period not documented; fledging period 13–15 days.
Status and conservation
Not globally threatened. The most abundant manakin over much of its range. Common in most of Panama, including both sides of Canal area; very common to common throughout Colombian range.
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