near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
Sister to V. cyanoptera, based on genetic studies, and they hybridize regularly where breeding ranges overlap; recent genetic research indicates that differentiation between them is extremely low and that such hybridization has a long history, contrary to other data that have suggested that intermixing has largely occurred in the last 200 years, facilitated by anthropogenic changes#R. Monotypic.
S Canada (SE Manitoba, S Ontario, S Quebec) and N USA (Minnesota) E past Great Lakes to Pennsylvania, and S in Appalachians to N Georgia; migrates to wintering grounds from SE Mexico and Guatemala S to Panama, a few reaching N South America.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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