Possible hybridization with L. hyperboreus recorded#R. Monotypic.
Great Lakes, E Canada and E USA S to North Carolina; S Greenland; Iceland, Faeroes, British Is, W France and Scandinavia E to at least White Sea, including Bear I and Spitsbergen; found breeding at least occasionally in N Spain (Galicia) since 2005#R and also in S Morocco (Khnifiss Lagoon) since 2009#R. Winters in E North America S to Florida, rarely to West Indies; in Eurasia S to Iberia, occasionally reaching Morocco.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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