Family Cuckoos (Cuculidae)

Least Concern

Greater Ani (Crotophaga major)


French: Ani des palétuviers German: Riesenani Spanish: Garrapatero mayor

Crotophaga major

J. F. Gmelin

, 1788,





E Panama through tropical South America, mainly E of Andes, to N Argentina and Uruguay; isolated population in SW Ecuador; Trinidad.

Descriptive notes

46–49 cm; male 162·1–166·7 g, female 139·5–145·1 g. Adult sleek glossy blue-black with bronzy green feather edges; iris white;... read more


Noisy, guttural to bubbling, melodious “kro-koro”, a growl, croaks, grates, hisses and... read more


Flooded tropical evergreen forest, river-edge forest, gallery forest, in dense vegetation, thickets... read more

Food and feeding

Mainly insects, especially Orthoptera (grasshoppers, roaches), also caterpillars (Brassolidae), beetles, other arthropods, spiders,... read more


Breeds June–Sept in Panama, May–Dec in Guyana, Apr–Sept in Surinam, Apr (nestlings) in French Guiana. Group-living,... read more


Resident; some local movements.

Status and conservation

Not globally threatened (Least Concern). Fairly common throughout its range. May possibly have occurred earlier in Mexico (S Tamaulipas), from where two 1960 specimens... read more

Recommended citation

Payne, R. & de Juana, E. (2020). Greater Ani (Crotophaga major). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from on 17 February 2020).