Himalayas and lower regions of India.
Closely related to C. mentale, which is separated altitudinally in area of range overlap. Much individual variation in plumage tone and markings, races intergrading, and clinal decrease in size from N to S. Race kumaonense sometimes considered too poorly differentiated (on average longer-winged, generally with less yellow tinge on upperparts, more rufous in wing) from nominate, but probably merits recognition#R. Proposed races archon (N Vietnam) and lylei (N & W Thailand) barely distinguishable, and features fall within range of individual variation of other races; marianae (described from Mt Victoria, in W Myanmar) synonymized with nominate. Eight subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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