Races virescens (distinguished by maroon-chestnut vs grey neck sides and breast sides; score 3) and sundevalli (distinguished by all-black body plumage; potential score 4) often raised to full species; proposed taxon “patens” of C Panama is invalid, based on hybrids between virescens and striata, which occur in a variety of intermediate forms#R (indeed, considerable variation exists even within the form virescens#R); hybrid zone between virescens and striata narrow and stable, and interpreted in recent analysis to be evidence of species status for virescens#R (additional score 2, total 5); but separation of virescens would leave South American taxa conspecific with Old World taxa, a situation that seems improbable. In Galapagos variation may be a polymorphism, and far less distinctive individuals exist, with no genetic separation yet found#R. Race chloriceps synonymized with javanica by some authors#R#R. Race flyensis previously subsumed within littleri, and both of those often synonymized with macrorhyncha. Race robinsoni (Margarita I, N Venezuela) generally considered undiagnosable. Thirty-three subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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