vicinity of Caracas.
Relationships uncertain within the complex containing present species, C. torquata, C. eisenmanni and C. inca (also relationship to C. prunellei and C. wilsoni); further studies needed (see C. torquata). Hitherto considered conspecific with C. torquata, but differs in having grass-green plumage where nominate torquata (its closest geographical counterpart) is blackish (most striking in male, but also characteristic of female) (4); absence of bluish central crown patch (2); outer primaries edged rufous (ns); female with mainly plain buffy-rufous throat vs blackish-and-white mottled throat which on some specimens has hint of buffy wash (2). Monotypic.
Andes of NW Venezuela (Trujillo to N Táchira) and E Andes of N Colombia (Norte de Santander).
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
Only subscribers are able to see the bibliography. Login or Subscribe to get access to a lot of extra features!