Hitherto considered conspecific with C. longirostris, but here treated as a separate species. C. longirostris differs in having forehead and supercilium white vs buffy-maroon (3); crown to hindneck sharply defined pale grey vs poorly defined slaty grey (2); white shoulder patches clearly much smaller (2); and rusty-rufous in primaries much less pronounced (ns). Also closely related to C. stephani, with which largely allopatric; distributions suggest that it may be expanding its range at the expense of latter, for example in Moluccas and W Papuan Is. Nicobar race augusta is intermediate between nominate and maxima, and perhaps better merged in one or other of these. Other races described include salimalii (SW India), yamashinai (S Ryukyus), formosana (Taiwan), sanghirensis (Sangihe) and nana (Peleng, in Banggai Is), but all seem to be based on very minor differences from nominate. Six subspecies currently recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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